A-Level Chemistry

Effect of Lone Pairs on the Shape of Molecules

In this video, I start by discussing the shapes of three common ions that you could be asked in your exam. These are carbonate, nitrate and sulfate. I then explain the effect of lone pairs on the shapes of molecules. First I discuss the ammonia molecule which has one lone pair on the nitrogen atom. I explain the difference in the shape of the ammonia molecule and the ammonium ion. Then I look at water which has two lone pairs on the oxygen atom